Basically, it sends a larger load of air into the cylinders, thus increasing the amount of gasoline that can be injected into the combustion chamber. The consequence is a sharp increase of combustion chamber’s internal temperature. Turbo charging forces compressed air into an engine to improve a vehicle’s performance. The advantage of compressing the air is that it lets the engine squeeze more air into a cylinder, and more air means that more fuel can be added.
Therefore, you get more power from each explosion in each cylinder. A turbocharged engine produces more power overall than the same engine without the charging. This can significantly improve the power-to-weight ratio for the engine (we will learn on how horsepower works later). On the one hand the air is compressed while its temperature increases and on the other, more burning gasoline produces more heat. With turbochargers, a smaller, more fuel efficient engine can replace a larger, less fuel efficient engine. The smaller engine achieves similar performance, while reducing exhaust emissions.
The turbocharger is driven by waste exhaust gases forced through an exhaust housing onto a turbine wheel. The turbine wheel is connected by a common shaft to a compressor wheel so that both wheels rotate simultaneously when the exhaust gases hit the turbine wheel. Rotation of the turbo assembly compresses the intake air routed through a compressor housing, forcing the compressed air into the engine’s cylinders. The increased amount of air forced into the engine creates more power than a similarly sized non-turbocharged engine and power similar to a larger, non-turbocharged engine. Turbochargers operate at very high temperatures, high speeds and high pressures. Optimum performance can only be achieved by the proper operation, maintenance and service.
Planning For Changes
So the first issue you encounter is whether your piston will withstand this temperature (which I highly doubt). Many of the stock turbocharged gasoline engines spray a stream of oil around the bottom of the piston to assist in the cooling.
Then you will have a problem of self-burning gasoline with a high compression ratio (about 11:1). Either you use a gasoline with 110 octane or you will need to reduce this ratio below 9:1 by increasing the thickness of the head gasket, for example.
You can’t ignore the heat issue for too long. Otherwise, your beautiful turbine will blow up at 2 bar with the rods planted in the ground, right from the start. You will also need to work the management of injection, since the current settings won’t be compatible with a turbo.
Another thing you should plan to change: the camshafts. The phasing and time of initiation of the stock engine might not be compatible with a turbo.
Only once you have evaluated all these points can you look at the practical stuff: how to install a turbo on your block. The installation can be rather complicated, since you will need to at least provide lubrication for the turbo. Consider changing your stock intake/exhaust manifolds.
Take a look on this full information video:
how stuff works